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Donald Schon


Schon, a philosopher developed the theory of Reflective practice. Reflective
practice is based upon the principle that we learn through two processes of

Reflection IN Action is the immediate response we have to a situation. It is an
instinctive response based on the successful results of past experience.


Reflection ON Action occurs when we examine our actions and results. When our
initial response does not have the result we wanted, or expected. We reframe the
situation through questioning our judgement and our actions. This gives us a
fresh perspective and a new solution to try.


– We encounter a surprise.
– We Reflect IN Action as we assess the situation against our repertoire of
past experience.
– We respond.
– We reflect ON Actions and ask: Did that work?


Yes and the solution joins our past experience library.

No and we enter the process of questioning and reframing.

Reflective Practice

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